Synthesis and analysis of novel glycerolipids for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) 1 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist found to improve insulin sensitivity, lower blood lipid levels, enhance fatty acid oxidation, and promote antiinflammation in vivo. In an attempt to enhance these properties, two key thioether fatty acid (Thefa) lipids, ditetradecylthioacetyl phosphatidylcholine 2 and tritetradecylthioacetyl glycerol 3, are synthesized and administered po to male Wistar rats at two different doses to study and compare metabolic outcomes relative to the administration of 1 alone after 6 days. Liposomal formulations of 1 and 2 are also prepared to evaluate acute metabolic responses (at 3 h) post iv injection. Across all metrics measured, 1-induced responses post po administration are in line with previous data. Responses induced from 3 are mostly equivalent to 1-induced responses. By contrast, 2-induced responses almost always outperform those of 1 and 3. Therefore, 2 may represent a new lead for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.