We propose that to fully understand biological mechanisms underlying pathological brain activity with transitions (e.g., into and out of seizures), wide-bandwidth electrophysiological recordings are important. We demonstrate the importance of ultraslow potential shifts and infraslow oscillations for reliable tracking of synaptic physiology, within a neural mass model, from brain recordings that undergo pathological phase transitions. We use wide-bandwidth data (direct current (DC) to high-frequency activity), recorded using epidural and penetrating graphene micro-transistor arrays in a rodent model of acute seizures. Using this technological approach, we capture the dynamics of infraslow changes that contribute to seizure initiation (active pre-seizure DC shifts) and progression (passive DC shifts). By employing a continuous–discrete unscented Kalman filter, we track biological mechanisms from full-bandwidth data with and without active pre-seizure DC shifts during paroxysmal transitions. We then apply the same methodological approach for tracking the same parameters after application of high-pass-filtering >0.3Hz to both data sets. This approach reveals that ultraslow potential shifts play a fundamental role in the transition to seizure, and the use of high-pass-filtered data results in the loss of key information in regard to seizure onset and termination dynamics.