Biocompatibility and biodegradability of 2D materials: Graphene and beyond


The potential risks associated with two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials may cause serious concerns about their real applications and impact in biological systems. In addition, the demonstration of biodegradability of these flat nanomaterials is essential in living organisms. Here, we summarise the state-of-the-art in the field of biocompatibility and biodegradability of graphene-related materials (such as 2D materials like MoS2, BN or WS2). The impact of chemical functionalisation on the potential control of the biodegradability profile of these structures is also discussed.