The development of new and efficient drug delivery systems is of fundamental importance to improve the pharmacological profiles of many classes of therapeutic molecules. Many different types of drug delivery systems are currently available. Within the family of nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have emerged as a new alternative and efficient tool for transporting and translocating therapeutic molecules. CNT can be functionalised with bioactive peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and drugs, and used to deliver their cargos to cells and organs. Because functionalised CNT display low toxicity and are not immunogenic, such systems hold great potential in the field of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine.